I don't know all of the details on getting an expedited passport, but I know people who have done it and it is possible, and relatively painless. Just browsing the website for a few minutes I found that you can get one in about two weeks:
***Expedite Service: If you apply for your passport today and request Expedited Passport Processing, you can expect to receive your passport in 2 weeks door-to-door. Effective June 16, 2008, the Department’s standard for expedited passport processing completion, as defined in 22 CFR 51.56, is five business days from either: 1) receipt of your passport application at a Passport Agency/Center; or 2) if the passport application is already at a Passport Agency/Center, the date your request for expedited passport processing is approved. Expedited passport processing is considered complete when the passport is ready to be picked by an applicant or when it is put in the mail to the applicant.
Browse this website...you may not even need to visit an embassy:
Maybe when you go to the post office (or wherever) to get your passport application, there is a place on the application for expedited service.